Thirty-four years later, the concept of “open skies” was reintroduced by U.S. President George H.W. Bush to build trust and security between all the countries of the North Atlantic Treaty (NATO) and the Warsaw Pact. In February 1990, an open-air international conference opened in Ottawa, Canada, with the participation of all NATO Pact and Warsaw Pact countries. Rounds of negotiations were then held in Budapest, Hungary; Vienna, Austria; Helsinki, Finland.  1. The air services agreement between the United States and the European Union, signed in Brussels on 25 April and Washington on 30 April 2007, replaced the previous Annex I agreements and was applied provisionally from 30 March 2008 for all 27 EU Member States on that date. Norway and Iceland are members of the agreement between the United States and the European Union, in accordance with an agreement signed in Luxembourg on 16 June 2011 and Oslo on 21 June 2011, which will be implemented on an interim basis from 21 June 2011. The United Kingdom left the European Union on 31 January 2020; However, the United States will endeavour, as far as possible, to allow the United Kingdom to benefit from the treatment it would receive if the EU agreement on US air transport, as amended, applies to this agreement until the end of the transitional period, which expires on 31 December 2020.
4. The agreement between the United States and the Kingdom of the Netherlands concerns air transport between Curacao and the United States. As part of the agreement, London Heathrow was open to full competition. This is the end of the exclusive right granted to only two American airlines and two British airlines (introduced in 1977 under the Bermuda II Agreement and for which UK foreign traffic rights are in effect in the United States) to fly transatlantic flights from Heathrow. These four airlines were British Airways, Virgin Atlantic, United Airlines and American Airlines. Alternatively, the Biden administration could consider re-entering the treaty on the basis of an executive agreement that may have been approved by simple majorities in the House of Representatives and the Senate. Such a mechanism would require the agreement of the other 33 contracting parties. I hope the Russians would not choose to be cheerleaders. The “open skies” agreement between the EU and the United States is an agreement on air services between the European Union (EU) and the United States. The agreement allows any Airline of the European Union and any airline of the United States to fly between every point of the European Union and any point of the United States.
EU and US airlines are allowed to travel to another country after their first stop (fifth freedom). Since the EU is not considered a single zone within the meaning of the agreement, this in practice means that US airlines can fly between two points in the EU as long as this flight is the continuation of a flight that started in the US (. B for example, New York – London – Berlin). EU airlines can also fly between the US and third countries that are part of the common European airspace, such as Switzerland. EU and US airlines can fly all-cargo under the 7th Freedom Rights, which means that all-cargo flights by US airlines can be operated by an EU country to any other EU country and all-cargo flights can be operated by EU airlines between the US and any other country.  Norway and Iceland joined the agreement from 2011 and their airlines enjoy the same rights as THE EU airlines.  Over the past four years, the Trump administration has targeted several international treaties, including the 1987 Medium-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, an important Cold War agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union.